Before you continue reading in this chapter, please make sure
that you are comfortable with configuring basic files services
in smb.conf and how to enable and administer password
encryption in Samba. Theses two topics are covered in the
manpage and the Encryption chapter
of this HOWTO Collection.
Note: Author's Note: This document is a combination
of David Bannon's "Samba 2.2 PDC HOWTO" and "Samba NT Domain FAQ".
Both documents are superseded by this one.
Versions of Samba prior to release 2.2 had marginal capabilities to act
as a Windows NT 4.0 Primary Domain Controller
(PDC). With Samba 2.2.0, we are proud to announce official support for
Windows NT 4.0-style domain logons from Windows NT 4.0 and Windows
2000 clients. This article outlines the steps
necessary for configuring Samba as a PDC. It is necessary to have a
working Samba server prior to implementing the PDC functionality. If
you have not followed the steps outlined in UNIX_INSTALL.html, please make sure
that your server is configured correctly before proceeding. Another
good resource in the smb.conf(5) man
page. The following functionality should work in 2.2:
domain logons for Windows NT 4.0/2000 clients.
placing a Windows 9x client in user level security
retrieving a list of users and groups from a Samba PDC to
Windows 9x/NT/2000 clients
roving (roaming) user profiles
Windows NT 4.0-style system policies
The following pieces of functionality are not included in the 2.2 release:
Windows NT 4 domain trusts
SAM replication with Windows NT 4.0 Domain Controllers
(i.e. a Samba PDC and a Windows NT BDC or vice versa)
Adding users via the User Manager for Domains
Acting as a Windows 2000 Domain Controller (i.e. Kerberos and
Please note that Windows 9x clients are not true members of a domain
for reasons outlined in this article. Therefore the protocol for
support Windows 9x-style domain logons is completely different
from NT4 domain logons and has been officially supported for some
Implementing a Samba PDC can basically be divided into 2 broad
Configuring the Samba PDC
Creating machine trust accounts and joining clients
to the domain
There are other minor details such as user profiles, system
policies, etc... However, these are not necessarily specific
to a Samba PDC as much as they are related to Windows NT networking
concepts. They will be mentioned only briefly here.
The first step in creating a working Samba PDC is to
understand the parameters necessary in smb.conf. I will not
attempt to re-explain the parameters here as they are more that
adequately covered in the smb.conf
man page. For convenience, the parameters have been
linked with the actual smb.conf description.
Here is an example smb.conf for acting as a PDC:
; Basic server settings
netbios name = POGO
workgroup = NARNIA
; we should act as the domain and local master browser
os level = 64
preferred master = yes
domain master = yes
local master = yes
; security settings (must user security = user)
security = user
; encrypted passwords are a requirement for a PDC
encrypt passwords = yes
; support domain logons
domain logons = yes
; where to store user profiles?
logon path = \\%N\profiles\%u
; where is a user's home directory and where should it
; be mounted at?
logon drive = H:
logon home = \\homeserver\%u
; specify a generic logon script for all users
; this is a relative **DOS** path to the [netlogon] share
logon script = logon.cmd
; necessary share for domain controller
path = /usr/local/samba/lib/netlogon
read only = yes
write list = ntadmin
; share for storing user profiles
path = /export/smb/ntprofile
read only = no
create mask = 0600
directory mask = 0700
There are a couple of points to emphasize in the above configuration.
Encrypted passwords must be enabled. For more details on how
to do this, refer to ENCRYPTION.html.
The server must support domain logons and a
The server must be the domain master browser in order for Windows
client to locate the server as a DC. Please refer to the various
Network Browsing documentation included with this distribution for
As Samba 2.2 does not offer a complete implementation of group mapping
between Windows NT groups and Unix groups (this is really quite
complicated to explain in a short space), you should refer to the
group smb.conf parameter for information of creating "Domain
Admins" style accounts.
A machine trust account is a Samba account that is used to
authenticate a client machine (rather than a user) to the Samba
server. In Windows terminology, this is known as a "Computer
The password of a machine trust account acts as the shared secret for
secure communication with the Domain Controller. This is a security
feature to prevent an unauthorized machine with the same NetBIOS name
from joining the domain and gaining access to domain user/group
accounts. Windows NT and 2000 clients use machine trust accounts, but
Windows 9x clients do not. Hence, a Windows 9x client is never a true
member of a domain because it does not possess a machine trust
account, and thus has no shared secret with the domain controller.
A Windows PDC stores each machine trust account in the Windows
Registry. A Samba PDC, however, stores each machine trust account
in two parts, as follows:
A Samba account, stored in the same location as user
LanMan and NT password hashes (currently
smbpasswd). The Samba account
possesses and uses only the NT password hash.
A corresponding Unix account, typically stored in
/etc/passwd. (Future releases will alleviate the need to
create /etc/passwd entries.)
There are two ways to create machine trust accounts:
Manual creation. Both the Samba and corresponding
Unix account are created by hand.
"On-the-fly" creation. The Samba machine trust
account is automatically created by Samba at the time the client
is joined to the domain. (For security, this is the
recommended method.) The corresponding Unix account may be
created automatically or manually.
The first step in manually creating a machine trust account is to
manually create the corresponding Unix account in
/etc/passwd. This can be done using
vipw or other 'add user' command that is normally
used to create new Unix accounts. The following is an example for a
Linux based Samba server:
root# /usr/sbin/useradd -g 100 -d /dev/null -c "machine
nickname" -s /bin/false machine_name$
root# passwd -l machine_name$
The /etc/passwd entry will list the machine name
with a "$" appended, won't have a password, will have a null shell and no
home directory. For example a machine named 'doppy' would have an
/etc/passwd entry like this:
Above, machine_nickname can be any
descriptive name for the client, i.e., BasementComputer.
machine_name absolutely must be the NetBIOS
name of the client to be joined to the domain. The "$" must be
appended to the NetBIOS name of the client or Samba will not recognize
this as a machine trust account.
Now that the corresponding Unix account has been created, the next step is to create
the Samba account for the client containing the well-known initial
machine trust account password. This can be done using the smbpasswd(8) command
as shown here:
root# smbpasswd -a -m machine_name
where machine_name is the machine's NetBIOS
name. The RID of the new machine account is generated from the UID of
the corresponding Unix account.
|Join the client to the domain immediately|
Manually creating a machine trust account using this method is the
equivalent of creating a machine trust account on a Windows NT PDC using
the "Server Manager". From the time at which the account is created
to the time which the client joins the domain and changes the password,
your domain is vulnerable to an intruder joining your domain using a
a machine with the same NetBIOS name. A PDC inherently trusts
members of the domain and will serve out a large degree of user
information to such clients. You have been warned!
The second (and recommended) way of creating machine trust accounts is
simply to allow the Samba server to create them as needed when the client
is joined to the domain.
Since each Samba machine trust account requires a corresponding
Unix account, a method for automatically creating the
Unix account is usually supplied; this requires configuration of the
add user script
option in smb.conf. This
method is not required, however; corresponding Unix accounts may also
be created manually.
Below is an example for a RedHat 6.2 Linux system.
# <...remainder of parameters...>
add user script = /usr/sbin/useradd -d /dev/null -g 100 -s /bin/false -M %u
The procedure for joining a client to the domain varies with the
version of Windows.
When the user elects to join the client to a domain, Windows prompts for
an account and password that is privileged to join the domain. A
Samba administrative account (i.e., a Samba account that has root
privileges on the Samba server) must be entered here; the
operation will fail if an ordinary user account is given.
The password for this account should be
set to a different password than the associated
/etc/passwd entry, for security
The session key of the Samba administrative account acts as an
encryption key for setting the password of the machine trust
account. The machine trust account will be created on-the-fly, or
updated if it already exists.
If the machine trust account was created manually, on the
Identification Changes menu enter the domain name, but do not
check the box "Create a Computer Account in the Domain." In this case,
the existing machine trust account is used to join the machine to
If the machine trust account is to be created
on-the-fly, on the Identification Changes menu enter the domain
name, and check the box "Create a Computer Account in the Domain." In
this case, joining the domain proceeds as above for Windows 2000
(i.e., you must supply a Samba administrative account when
I cannot include a '$' in a machine name.
A 'machine name' in (typically) /etc/passwd
of the machine name with a '$' appended. FreeBSD (and other BSD
systems?) won't create a user with a '$' in their name.
The problem is only in the program used to make the entry, once
made, it works perfectly. So create a user without the '$' and
use vipw to edit the entry, adding the '$'. Or create
the whole entry with vipw if you like, make sure you use a
unique User ID !
I get told "You already have a connection to the Domain...."
or "Cannot join domain, the credentials supplied conflict with an
existing set.." when creating a machine trust account.
This happens if you try to create a machine trust account from the
machine itself and already have a connection (e.g. mapped drive)
to a share (or IPC$) on the Samba PDC. The following command
will remove all network drive connections:
C:\WINNT\> net use * /d
Further, if the machine is a already a 'member of a workgroup' that
is the same name as the domain you are joining (bad idea) you will
get this message. Change the workgroup name to something else, it
does not matter what, reboot, and try again.
The system can not log you on (C000019B)....
I joined the domain successfully but after upgrading
to a newer version of the Samba code I get the message, "The system
can not log you on (C000019B), Please try a gain or consult your
system administrator" when attempting to logon.
This occurs when the domain SID stored in
changed. For example, you remove the file and smbd automatically
creates a new one. Or you are swapping back and forth between
versions 2.0.7, TNG and the HEAD branch code (not recommended). The
only way to correct the problem is to restore the original domain
SID or remove the domain client from the domain and rejoin.
The machine trust account for this computer either does not
exist or is not accessible.
When I try to join the domain I get the message "The machine account
for this computer either does not exist or is not accessible". What's
This problem is caused by the PDC not having a suitable machine trust account.
If you are using the add user script method to create
accounts then this would indicate that it has not worked. Ensure the domain
admin user system is working.
Alternatively if you are creating account entries manually then they
have not been created correctly. Make sure that you have the entry
correct for the machine trust account in smbpasswd file on the Samba PDC.
If you added the account using an editor rather than using the smbpasswd
utility, make sure that the account name is the machine NetBIOS name
with a '$' appended to it ( i.e. computer_name$ ). There must be an entry
in both /etc/passwd and the smbpasswd file. Some people have reported
that inconsistent subnet masks between the Samba server and the NT
client have caused this problem. Make sure that these are consistent
for both client and server.
When I attempt to login to a Samba Domain from a NT4/W2K workstation,
I get a message about my account being disabled.
This problem is caused by a PAM related bug in Samba 2.2.0. This bug is
fixed in 2.2.1. Other symptoms could be unaccessible shares on
NT/W2K member servers in the domain or the following error in your smbd.log:
passdb/pampass.c:pam_account(268) PAM: UNKNOWN ERROR for User: %user%
At first be ensure to enable the useraccounts with smbpasswd -e
%user%, this is normally done, when you create an account.
In order to work around this problem in 2.2.0, configure the
account control flag in
/etc/pam.d/samba file as follows:
account required pam_permit.so
If you want to remain backward compatibility to samba 2.0.x use
pam_permit.so, it's also possible to use
pam_pwdb.so. There are some bugs if you try to
use pam_unix.so, if you need this, be ensure to use
the most recent version of this file.
Much of the information necessary to implement System Policies and
Roving User Profiles in a Samba domain is the same as that for
implementing these same items in a Windows NT 4.0 domain.
You should read the white paper Implementing
Profiles and Policies in Windows NT 4.0 available from Microsoft.
Here are some additional details:
What about Windows NT Policy Editor?
To create or edit ntconfig.pol you must use
the NT Server Policy Editor, poledit.exe which
is included with NT Server but not NT Workstation.
There is a Policy Editor on a NTws
but it is not suitable for creating Domain Policies.
Further, although the Windows 95
Policy Editor can be installed on an NT Workstation/Server, it will not
work with NT policies because the registry key that are set by the policy templates.
However, the files from the NT Server will run happily enough on an NTws.
You need poledit.exe, common.adm and winnt.adm. It is convenient
to put the two *.adm files in c:\winnt\inf which is where
the binary will look for them unless told otherwise. Note also that that
directory is 'hidden'.
The Windows NT policy editor is also included with the Service Pack 3 (and
later) for Windows NT 4.0. Extract the files using servicepackname /x,
i.e. that's Nt4sp6ai.exe /x for service pack 6a. The policy editor,
poledit.exe and the associated template files (*.adm) should
be extracted as well. It is also possible to downloaded the policy template
files for Office97 and get a copy of the policy editor. Another possible
location is with the Zero Administration Kit available for download from Microsoft.
Can Win95 do Policies?
Install the group policy handler for Win9x to pick up group
policies. Look on the Win98 CD in \tools\reskit\netadmin\poledit.
Install group policies on a Win9x client by double-clicking
grouppol.inf. Log off and on again a couple of
times and see if Win98 picks up group policies. Unfortunately this needs
to be done on every Win9x machine that uses group policies....
If group policies don't work one reports suggests getting the updated
(read: working) grouppol.dll for Windows 9x. The group list is grabbed
How do I get 'User Manager' and 'Server Manager'
Since I don't need to buy an NT Server CD now, how do I get
the 'User Manager for Domains', the 'Server Manager'?
Microsoft distributes a version of these tools called nexus for
installation on Windows 95 systems. The tools set includes
User Manager for Domains
Click here to download the archived file ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/NEXUS.EXE
The Windows NT 4.0 version of the 'User Manager for
Domains' and 'Server Manager' are available from Microsoft via ftp
There are many sources of information available in the form
of mailing lists, RFC's and documentation. The docs that come
with the samba distribution contain very good explanations of
general SMB topics such as browsing.
What are some diagnostics tools I can use to debug the domain logon
process and where can I find them?
One of the best diagnostic tools for debugging problems is Samba itself.
You can use the -d option for both smbd and nmbd to specify what
'debug level' at which to run. See the man pages on smbd, nmbd and
smb.conf for more information on debugging options. The debug
level can range from 1 (the default) to 10 (100 for debugging passwords).
Another helpful method of debugging is to compile samba using the
gcc -g flag. This will include debug
information in the binaries and allow you to attach gdb to the
running smbd / nmbd process. In order to attach gdb to an smbd
process for an NT workstation, first get the workstation to make the
connection. Pressing ctrl-alt-delete and going down to the domain box
is sufficient (at least, on the first time you join the domain) to
generate a 'LsaEnumTrustedDomains'. Thereafter, the workstation
maintains an open connection, and therefore there will be an smbd
process running (assuming that you haven't set a really short smbd
idle timeout) So, in between pressing ctrl alt delete, and actually
typing in your password, you can gdb attach and continue.
Some useful samba commands worth investigating:
An SMB enabled version of tcpdump is available from
Ethereal, another good packet sniffer for Unix and Win32
hosts, can be downloaded from http://www.ethereal.com.
For tracing things on the Microsoft Windows NT, Network Monitor
(aka. netmon) is available on the Microsoft Developer Network CD's,
the Windows NT Server install CD and the SMS CD's. The version of
netmon that ships with SMS allows for dumping packets between any two
computers (i.e. placing the network interface in promiscuous mode).
The version on the NT Server install CD will only allow monitoring
of network traffic directed to the local NT box and broadcasts on the
local subnet. Be aware that Ethereal can read and write netmon
How do I install 'Network Monitor' on an NT Workstation
or a Windows 9x box?
Installing netmon on an NT workstation requires a couple
of steps. The following are for installing Netmon V4.00.349, which comes
with Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0, on Microsoft Windows NT
Workstation 4.0. The process should be similar for other version of
Windows NT / Netmon. You will need both the Microsoft Windows
NT Server 4.0 Install CD and the Workstation 4.0 Install CD.
Initially you will need to install 'Network Monitor Tools and Agent'
on the NT Server. To do this
Goto Start - Settings - Control Panel -
Network - Services - Add
Select the 'Network Monitor Tools and Agent' and
click on 'OK'.
Click 'OK' on the Network Control Panel.
Insert the Windows NT Server 4.0 install CD
At this point the Netmon files should exist in
Two subdirectories exist as well, parsers\
which contains the necessary DLL's for parsing the netmon packet
dump, and captures\.
In order to install the Netmon tools on an NT Workstation, you will
first need to install the 'Network Monitor Agent' from the Workstation
Goto Start - Settings - Control Panel -
Network - Services - Add
Select the 'Network Monitor Agent' and click
Click 'OK' on the Network Control Panel.
Insert the Windows NT Workstation 4.0 install
CD when prompted.
Now copy the files from the NT Server in %SYSTEMROOT%\System32\netmon\*.*
to %SYSTEMROOT%\System32\netmon\*.* on the Workstation and set
permissions as you deem appropriate for your site. You will need
administrative rights on the NT box to run netmon.
To install Netmon on a Windows 9x box install the network monitor agent
from the Windows 9x CD (\admin\nettools\netmon). There is a readme
file located with the netmon driver files on the CD if you need
information on how to do this. Copy the files from a working
The following is a list if helpful URLs and other links:
How do I get help from the mailing lists?
There are a number of Samba related mailing lists. Go to http://samba.org, click on your nearest mirror
and then click on Support and then click on Samba related mailing lists.
For questions relating to Samba TNG go to
It has been requested that you don't post questions about Samba-TNG to the
main stream Samba lists.
If you post a message to one of the lists please observe the following guide lines :
Always remember that the developers are volunteers, they are
not paid and they never guarantee to produce a particular feature at
a particular time. Any time lines are 'best guess' and nothing more.
Always mention what version of samba you are using and what
operating system its running under. You should probably list the
relevant sections of your smb.conf file, at least the options
in [global] that affect PDC support.
In addition to the version, if you obtained Samba via
CVS mention the date when you last checked it out.
Try and make your question clear and brief, lots of long,
convoluted questions get deleted before they are completely read !
Don't post html encoded messages (if you can select colour or font
size its html).
If you run one of those nifty 'I'm on holidays' things when
you are away, make sure its configured to not answer mailing lists.
Don't cross post. Work out which is the best list to post to
and see what happens, i.e. don't post to both samba-ntdom and samba-technical.
Many people active on the lists subscribe to more
than one list and get annoyed to see the same message two or more times.
Often someone will see a message and thinking it would be better dealt
with on another, will forward it on for you.
You might include partial
log files written at a debug level set to as much as 20.
Please don't send the entire log but enough to give the context of the
(Possibly) If you have a complete netmon trace ( from the opening of
the pipe to the error ) you can send the *.CAP file as well.
Please think carefully before attaching a document to an email.
Consider pasting the relevant parts into the body of the message. The samba
mailing lists go to a huge number of people, do they all need a copy of your
smb.conf in their attach directory?
How do I get off the mailing lists?
To have your name removed from a samba mailing list, go to the
same place you went to to get on it. Go to http://lists.samba.org,
click on your nearest mirror and then click on Support and
then click on Samba related mailing lists. Or perhaps see
Please don't post messages to the list asking to be removed, you will just
be referred to the above address (unless that process failed in some way...)
Note: The following section contains much of the original
DOMAIN.txt file previously included with Samba. Much of
the material is based on what went into the book Special
Edition, Using Samba, by Richard Sharpe.
A domain and a workgroup are exactly the same thing in terms of network
browsing. The difference is that a distributable authentication
database is associated with a domain, for secure login access to a
network. Also, different access rights can be granted to users if they
successfully authenticate against a domain logon server (NT server and
other systems based on NT server support this, as does at least Samba TNG now).
The SMB client logging on to a domain has an expectation that every other
server in the domain should accept the same authentication information.
Network browsing functionality of domains and workgroups is
identical and is explained in BROWSING.txt. It should be noted, that browsing
is totally orthogonal to logon support.
Issues related to the single-logon network model are discussed in this
section. Samba supports domain logons, network logon scripts, and user
profiles for MS Windows for workgroups and MS Windows 9X/ME clients
which will be the focus of this section.
When an SMB client in a domain wishes to logon it broadcast requests for a
logon server. The first one to reply gets the job, and validates its
password using whatever mechanism the Samba administrator has installed.
It is possible (but very stupid) to create a domain where the user
database is not shared between servers, i.e. they are effectively workgroup
servers advertising themselves as participating in a domain. This
demonstrates how authentication is quite different from but closely
involved with domains.
Using these features you can make your clients verify their logon via
the Samba server; make clients run a batch file when they logon to
the network and download their preferences, desktop and start menu.
Before launching into the configuration instructions, it is
worthwhile lookingat how a Windows 9x/ME client performs a logon:
The client broadcasts (to the IP broadcast address of the subnet it is in)
a NetLogon request. This is sent to the NetBIOS name DOMAIN<1c> at the
NetBIOS layer. The client chooses the first response it receives, which
contains the NetBIOS name of the logon server to use in the format of
The client then connects to that server, logs on (does an SMBsessetupX) and
then connects to the IPC$ share (using an SMBtconX).
The client then does a NetWkstaUserLogon request, which retrieves the name
of the user's logon script.
The client then connects to the NetLogon share and searches for this
and if it is found and can be read, is retrieved and executed by the client.
After this, the client disconnects from the NetLogon share.
The client then sends a NetUserGetInfo request to the server, to retrieve
the user's home share, which is used to search for profiles. Since the
response to the NetUserGetInfo request does not contain much more
the user's home share, profiles for Win9X clients MUST reside in the user
The client then connects to the user's home share and searches for the
user's profile. As it turns out, you can specify the user's home share as
a sharename and path. For example, \\server\fred\.profile.
If the profiles are found, they are implemented.
The client then disconnects from the user's home share, and reconnects to
the NetLogon share and looks for CONFIG.POL, the policies file. If this is
found, it is read and implemented.
The main difference between a PDC and a Windows 9x logon
server configuration is that
Therefore, a Samba PDC will also act as a Windows 9x logon
|security mode and master browsers|
There are a few comments to make in order to tie up some
loose ends. There has been much debate over the issue of whether
or not it is ok to configure Samba as a Domain Controller in security
modes other than USER. The only security mode
which will not work due to technical reasons is SHARE
mode security. DOMAIN and SERVER
mode security is really just a variation on SMB user level security.
Actually, this issue is also closely tied to the debate on whether
or not Samba must be the domain master browser for its workgroup
when operating as a DC. While it may technically be possible
to configure a server as such (after all, browsing and domain logons
are two distinctly different functions), it is not a good idea to
so. You should remember that the DC must register the DOMAIN#1b NetBIOS
name. This is the name used by Windows clients to locate the DC.
Windows clients do not distinguish between the DC and the DMB.
For this reason, it is very wise to configure the Samba DC as the DMB.
Now back to the issue of configuring a Samba DC to use a mode other
than "security = user". If a Samba host is configured to use
another SMB server or DC in order to validate user connection
requests, then it is a fact that some other machine on the network
(the "password server") knows more about user than the Samba host.
99% of the time, this other host is a domain controller. Now
in order to operate in domain mode security, the "workgroup" parameter
must be set to the name of the Windows NT domain (which already
has a domain controller, right?)
Therefore configuring a Samba box as a DC for a domain that
already by definition has a PDC is asking for trouble.
Therefore, you should always configure the Samba DC to be the DMB
for its domain.
NOTE! Roaming profiles support is different
for Win9X and WinNT.
Before discussing how to configure roaming profiles, it is useful to see how
Win9X and WinNT clients implement these features.
Win9X clients send a NetUserGetInfo request to the server to get the user's
profiles location. However, the response does not have room for a separate
profiles location field, only the user's home share. This means that Win9X
profiles are restricted to being in the user's home directory.
WinNT clients send a NetSAMLogon RPC request, which contains many fields,
including a separate field for the location of the user's profiles.
This means that support for profiles is different for Win9X and WinNT.
To support WinNT clients, in the [global] section of smb.conf set the
following (for example):
logon path = \\profileserver\profileshare\profilepath\%U\moreprofilepath
The default for this option is \\%N\%U\profile, namely
\\sambaserver\username\profile. The \\N%\%U service is created
automatically by the [homes] service.
If you are using a samba server for the profiles, you _must_ make the
share specified in the logon path browseable.
Note: [lkcl 26aug96 - we have discovered a problem where Windows clients can
maintain a connection to the [homes] share in between logins. The
[homes] share must NOT therefore be used in a profile path.]
To support Win9X clients, you must use the "logon home" parameter. Samba has
now been fixed so that "net use/home" now works as well, and it, too, relies
on the "logon home" parameter.
By using the logon home parameter, you are restricted to putting Win9X
profiles in the user's home directory. But wait! There is a trick you
can use. If you set the following in the [global] section of your
logon home = \\%L\%U\.profiles
then your Win9X clients will dutifully put their clients in a subdirectory
of your home directory called .profiles (thus making them hidden).
Not only that, but 'net use/home' will also work, because of a feature in
Win9X. It removes any directory stuff off the end of the home directory area
and only uses the server and share portion. That is, it looks like you
specified \\%L\%U for "logon home".
You can support profiles for both Win9X and WinNT clients by setting both the
"logon home" and "logon path" parameters. For example:
logon home = \\%L\%U\.profiles
logon path = \\%L\profiles\%U
Note: I have not checked what 'net use /home' does on NT when "logon home" is
set as above.
When a user first logs in on Windows 9X, the file user.DAT is created,
as are folders "Start Menu", "Desktop", "Programs" and "Nethood".
These directories and their contents will be merged with the local
versions stored in c:\windows\profiles\username on subsequent logins,
taking the most recent from each. You will need to use the [global]
options "preserve case = yes", "short preserve case = yes" and
"case sensitive = no" in order to maintain capital letters in shortcuts
in any of the profile folders.
The user.DAT file contains all the user's preferences. If you wish to
enforce a set of preferences, rename their user.DAT file to user.MAN,
and deny them write access to this file.
On the Windows 95 machine, go to Control Panel | Passwords and
select the User Profiles tab. Select the required level of
roaming preferences. Press OK, but do _not_ allow the computer
On the Windows 95 machine, go to Control Panel | Network |
Client for Microsoft Networks | Preferences. Select 'Log on to
NT Domain'. Then, ensure that the Primary Logon is 'Client for
Microsoft Networks'. Press OK, and this time allow the computer
Under Windows 95, Profiles are downloaded from the Primary Logon.
If you have the Primary Logon as 'Client for Novell Networks', then
the profiles and logon script will be downloaded from your Novell
Server. If you have the Primary Logon as 'Windows Logon', then the
profiles will be loaded from the local machine - a bit against the
concept of roaming profiles, if you ask me.
You will now find that the Microsoft Networks Login box contains
[user, password, domain] instead of just [user, password]. Type in
the samba server's domain name (or any other domain known to exist,
but bear in mind that the user will be authenticated against this
domain and profiles downloaded from it, if that domain logon server
supports it), user name and user's password.
Once the user has been successfully validated, the Windows 95 machine
will inform you that 'The user has not logged on before' and asks you
if you wish to save the user's preferences? Select 'yes'.
Once the Windows 95 client comes up with the desktop, you should be able
to examine the contents of the directory specified in the "logon path"
on the samba server and verify that the "Desktop", "Start Menu",
"Programs" and "Nethood" folders have been created.
These folders will be cached locally on the client, and updated when
the user logs off (if you haven't made them read-only by then :-).
You will find that if the user creates further folders or short-cuts,
that the client will merge the profile contents downloaded with the
contents of the profile directory already on the local client, taking
the newest folders and short-cuts from each set.
If you have made the folders / files read-only on the samba server,
then you will get errors from the w95 machine on logon and logout, as
it attempts to merge the local and the remote profile. Basically, if
you have any errors reported by the w95 machine, check the Unix file
permissions and ownership rights on the profile directory contents,
on the samba server.
If you have problems creating user profiles, you can reset the user's
local desktop cache, as shown below. When this user then next logs in,
they will be told that they are logging in "for the first time".
instead of logging in under the [user, password, domain] dialog,
run the regedit.exe program, and look in:
you will find an entry, for each user, of ProfilePath. Note the
contents of this key (likely to be c:\windows\profiles\username),
then delete the key ProfilePath for the required user.
[Exit the registry editor].
WARNING - before deleting the contents of the
directory listed in
the ProfilePath (this is likely to be c:\windows\profiles\username),
ask them if they have any important files stored on their desktop
or in their start menu. delete the contents of the directory
ProfilePath (making a backup if any of the files are needed).
This will have the effect of removing the local (read-only hidden
system file) user.DAT in their profile directory, as well as the
local "desktop", "nethood", "start menu" and "programs" folders.
search for the user's .PWL password-caching file in the c:\windows
directory, and delete it.
log off the windows 95 client.
check the contents of the profile path (see "logon path" described
above), and delete the user.DAT or user.MAN file for the user,
making a backup if required.
If all else fails, increase samba's debug log levels to between 3 and 10,
and / or run a packet trace program such as tcpdump or netmon.exe, and
look for any error reports.
If you have access to an NT server, then first set up roaming profiles
and / or netlogons on the NT server. Make a packet trace, or examine
the example packet traces provided with NT server, and see what the
differences are with the equivalent samba trace.
When a user first logs in to a Windows NT Workstation, the profile
NTuser.DAT is created. The profile location can be now specified
through the "logon path" parameter.
Note: [lkcl 10aug97 - i tried setting the path to
\\samba-server\homes\profile, and discovered that this fails because
a background process maintains the connection to the [homes] share
which does _not_ close down in between user logins. you have to
have \\samba-server\%L\profile, where user is the username created
from the [homes] share].
There is a parameter that is now available for use with NT Profiles:
"logon drive". This should be set to "h:" or any other drive, and
should be used in conjunction with the new "logon home" parameter.
The entry for the NT 4.0 profile is a _directory_ not a file. The NT
help on profiles mentions that a directory is also created with a .PDS
extension. The user, while logging in, must have write permission to
create the full profile path (and the folder with the .PDS extension)
[lkcl 10aug97 - i found that the creation of the .PDS directory failed,
and had to create these manually for each user, with a shell script.
also, i presume, but have not tested, that the full profile path must
be browseable just as it is for w95, due to the manner in which they
attempt to create the full profile path: test existence of each path
component; create path component].
In the profile directory, NT creates more folders than 95. It creates
"Application Data" and others, as well as "Desktop", "Nethood",
"Start Menu" and "Programs". The profile itself is stored in a file
NTuser.DAT. Nothing appears to be stored in the .PDS directory, and
its purpose is currently unknown.
You can use the System Control Panel to copy a local profile onto
a samba server (see NT Help on profiles: it is also capable of firing
up the correct location in the System Control Panel for you). The
NT Help file also mentions that renaming NTuser.DAT to NTuser.MAN
turns a profile into a mandatory one.
Note: [lkcl 10aug97 - i notice that NT Workstation tells me that it is
downloading a profile from a slow link. whether this is actually the
case, or whether there is some configuration issue, as yet unknown,
that makes NT Workstation _think_ that the link is a slow one is a
matter to be resolved].
[lkcl 20aug97 - after samba digest correspondence, one user found, and
another confirmed, that profiles cannot be loaded from a samba server
unless "security = user" and "encrypt passwords = yes" (see the file
ENCRYPTION.txt) or "security = server" and "password server = ip.address.
of.yourNTserver" are used. Either of these options will allow the NT
workstation to access the samba server using LAN manager encrypted
passwords, without the user intervention normally required by NT
workstation for clear-text passwords].
[lkcl 25aug97 - more comments received about NT profiles: the case of
the profile _matters_. the file _must_ be called NTuser.DAT or, for
a mandatory profile, NTuser.MAN].
There is nothing to stop you specifying any path that you like for the
location of users' profiles. Therefore, you could specify that the
profile be stored on a samba server, or any other SMB server, as long as
that SMB server supports encrypted passwords.
|Potentially outdated or incorrect material follows|
I think this is all bogus, but have not deleted it. (Richard Sharpe)
The default logon path is \\%N\%U. NT Workstation will attempt to create
a directory "\\samba-server\username.PDS" if you specify the logon path
as "\\samba-server\username" with the NT User Manager. Therefore, you
will need to specify (for example) "\\samba-server\username\profile".
NT 4.0 will attempt to create "\\samba-server\username\profile.PDS", which
is more likely to succeed.
If you then want to share the same Start Menu / Desktop with W95, you will
need to specify "logon path = \\samba-server\username\profile" [lkcl 10aug97
this has its drawbacks: i created a shortcut to telnet.exe, which attempts
to run from the c:\winnt\system32 directory. this directory is obviously
unlikely to exist on a Win95-only host].
If you have this set up correctly, you will find separate user.DAT and
NTuser.DAT files in the same profile directory.
Note: [lkcl 25aug97 - there are some issues to resolve with downloading of
NT profiles, probably to do with time/date stamps. i have found that
NTuser.DAT is never updated on the workstation after the first time that
it is copied to the local workstation profile directory. this is in
contrast to w95, where it _does_ transfer / update profiles correctly].
|Possibly Outdated Material|
This appendix was originally authored by John H Terpstra of
the Samba Team and is included here for posterity.
The term "Domain Controller" and those related to it refer to one specific
method of authentication that can underly an SMB domain. Domain Controllers
prior to Windows NT Server 3.1 were sold by various companies and based on
private extensions to the LAN Manager 2.1 protocol. Windows NT introduced
Microsoft-specific ways of distributing the user authentication database.
See DOMAIN.txt for examples of how Samba can participate in or create
SMB domains based on shared authentication database schemes other than the
Windows NT SAM.
Windows NT Server can be installed as either a plain file and print server
(WORKGROUP workstation or server) or as a server that participates in Domain
Control (DOMAIN member, Primary Domain controller or Backup Domain controller).
The same is true for OS/2 Warp Server, Digital Pathworks and other similar
products, all of which can participate in Domain Control along with Windows NT.
To many people these terms can be confusing, so let's try to clear the air.
Every Windows NT system (workstation or server) has a registry database.
The registry contains entries that describe the initialization information
for all services (the equivalent of Unix Daemons) that run within the Windows
NT environment. The registry also contains entries that tell application
software where to find dynamically loadable libraries that they depend upon.
In fact, the registry contains entries that describes everything that anything
may need to know to interact with the rest of the system.
The registry files can be located on any Windows NT machine by opening a
command prompt and typing:
C:\WINNT\> dir %SystemRoot%\System32\config
The environment variable %SystemRoot% value can be obtained by typing:
The active parts of the registry that you may want to be familiar with are
the files called: default, system, software, sam and security.
In a domain environment, Microsoft Windows NT domain controllers participate
in replication of the SAM and SECURITY files so that all controllers within
the domain have an exactly identical copy of each.
The Microsoft Windows NT system is structured within a security model that
says that all applications and services must authenticate themselves before
they can obtain permission from the security manager to do what they set out
The Windows NT User database also resides within the registry. This part of
the registry contains the user's security identifier, home directory, group
memberships, desktop profile, and so on.
Every Windows NT system (workstation as well as server) will have its own
registry. Windows NT Servers that participate in Domain Security control
have a database that they share in common - thus they do NOT own an
independent full registry database of their own, as do Workstations and
The User database is called the SAM (Security Access Manager) database and
is used for all user authentication as well as for authentication of inter-
process authentication (i.e. to ensure that the service action a user has
requested is permitted within the limits of that user's privileges).
The Samba team have produced a utility that can dump the Windows NT SAM into
smbpasswd format: see ENCRYPTION.txt for information on smbpasswd and
/pub/samba/pwdump on your nearest Samba mirror for the utility. This
facility is useful but cannot be easily used to implement SAM replication
to Samba systems.
Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95, and Windows NT Workstations and Servers
can participate in a Domain security system that is controlled by Windows NT
servers that have been correctly configured. Almost every domain will have
ONE Primary Domain Controller (PDC). It is desirable that each domain will
have at least one Backup Domain Controller (BDC).
The PDC and BDCs then participate in replication of the SAM database so that
each Domain Controlling participant will have an up to date SAM component
within its registry.